Some basics here, but a good place to start. Even at this point you may figure out that SEO is not as easy to implement as many make out.
Obviously you should never buy links that pass page rank.
Matt has made video March 3rd 2014, reminding us never to buy a link, but goes into deeper information of what Google see’s as a paid link.
Some basic stuff reminding us, that search engines use the signals from social media to help with rankings.
How to use the “site” function to see if your site is indexed by google and will apear in their search results.
Some very basic stuff here from Google itself.
Probably one of the best videos that just gets to the point of how search workd at Google. Matt Cutts is excellent at explaining the basics of how their complicated system works to deliver results and give you the best results.